This article explores the effects of the political reactions to the 2007–2009 financial crisis on the monetary system. It chimes in with the view that shadow banks create ‘shadow money’, i.e. private substitutes for bank deposits. The article analyses how the three main forms of shadow money – money market fund shares, overnight repurchase agreements and asset-backed commercial papers – were affected by the short-term government intervention and medium-term regulation during and after the 2007–2009 financial crisis in the United States. The analysis reveals that the measures taken between 2007 and 2014 integrated some shadow money forms in the public money supply. In the year after the Lehman collapse, the initially private shadow money supply was either publicly backstopped or de-monetised as it had broken par to bank deposits. The public backstops took on the form of emergency facilities established by the Federal Reserve and guarantees proclaimed by the Treasury. Those backstops imply that the public institutional framework to protect bank deposits was extended to some forms of shadow money during the crisis. This tendency has continued in post-crisis regulation. Accordingly, the 2007–2009 financial crisis has triggered a paradigmatic change in the monetary system, attributable to the political decisions of US authorities.
‘The Evolution of the Offshore US-Dollar System: Past, Present and Four Possible Futures’ (with Joe Rini and Armin Haas)
Little has contributed more to the emergence of today’s world of financial globalization than the design of the international monetary system. In its current setup, it has a hierarchical structure with the US-Dollar at the […]
‘States, Markets – and Technocrats. Revisiting the Origins of Financial Globalization’ (with Benjamin Braun and Arie Krampf)
International political economy (IPE) has explained financial globalization as the result not merely of market pressure but of states deciding to open up and liberalize their financial systems. Challenging this ‘negative integration’ view as incomplete, […]
‘Quantitative Easing, Central Bank Independence and the Seeming Fundamental Difference between Monetary and Fiscal Policy’ (with Tobias Pforr)
Quantitative Easing (QE) has become the main new central banking activity after the 2007-9 Financial Crisis. Conventionally referred to as an ‘unconventional monetary policy’, the Federal Reserve has recently called it the ‘new normal’ of […]