This article explores the effects of the political reactions to the 2007–2009 financial crisis on the monetary system. It chimes in with the view that shadow banks create ‘shadow money’, i.e. private substitutes for bank deposits. The article analyses how the three main forms of shadow money – money market fund shares, overnight repurchase agreements and asset-backed commercial papers – were affected by the short-term government intervention and medium-term regulation during and after the 2007–2009 financial crisis in the United States. The analysis reveals that the measures taken between 2007 and 2014 integrated some shadow money forms in the public money supply. In the year after the Lehman collapse, the initially private shadow money supply was either publicly backstopped or de-monetised as it had broken par to bank deposits. The public backstops took on the form of emergency facilities established by the Federal Reserve and guarantees proclaimed by the Treasury. Those backstops imply that the public institutional framework to protect bank deposits was extended to some forms of shadow money during the crisis. This tendency has continued in post-crisis regulation. Accordingly, the 2007–2009 financial crisis has triggered a paradigmatic change in the monetary system, attributable to the political decisions of US authorities.
2016 | ‘European Monetary Integration and the Public-Private Money Divide. Can Post-Crisis Reforms Harmonize Private Money Creation in the Eurozone?’
Based on the conceptual framework of the ‘Money View’, this paper argues that European monetary integration until the Eurocrisis only focused on harmonizing public money on a supranational level while neglecting private credit money creation. […]
2019 | ‘Rethinking Monetary Sovereignty. The Global Credit Money System and the State’ (with Jens van ‘t Klooster)
This article proposes a conception of monetary sovereignty that recognizes the reality of today’s global credit money system. Monetary sovereignty is typically used in a ‘Westphalian’ sense that simply denotes the ability of states to […]
2019 | ‘States, Markets – and Technocrats. Revisiting the Origins of Financial Globalization’ (with Benjamin Braun and Arie Krampf)
International political economy (IPE) has explained financial globalization as the result not merely of market pressure but of states deciding to open up and liberalize their financial systems. Challenging this ‘negative integration’ view as incomplete, […]